As early as 1906, Elie Metchnikoff, a Russian scientist, wrote at length about a link between the bacterially-rich, fermented dairy products consumed by Bulgarian centenarians, and their abnormally long lives. Nearly a century would pass before significant research regarding our bacterial best friends would finally be undertaken, when Joshua Ledeberg, a veritable rockstar within the field of microbial genetics, championed a project to explore the Human Microbiome, an endeavor he equated with that of the Human Genome Project.